Law is a body of rules that govern the conduct of individuals and organizations. It is created and enforced by governmental and social institutions, and is generally considered to be an important part of society. It is a broad subject and is an essential part of many fields of study, including legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology.
Definition of Law: – The word law comes from the Latin phrase, “lege,” meaning “a rule.” In the general sense, law is the set of enforceable rules that are formulated by a government or society and applied to certain areas, such as crime, trade, social relations, property, finance, and more. Its precise definition is a matter of longstanding debate, and it has been variously described as a science or an art of justice.
Depending on the particular legal system, laws can be classified in one of several ways: (a) civil law, which regulates persons, goods, and relationships that develop among them; or (b) criminal law, which deals with crimes that are harmful to social order. Historically, both systems of law were codified under specific legislative and judicial authority.
Common law, on the other hand, is a body of unwritten law that has developed over time in response to a variety of unique situations and judgments. These rules may evolve over a lengthy period of time, and are constantly being improved and expanded by parliamentary debate and extensive consultation with different sides.
Some systems of law have statutes that limit the time within which lawsuits can be filed or criminal cases can be begun. These periods can vary according to the severity of a crime.
In the United States, courts are required to begin proceedings in civil cases and prosecute criminals within a specified time. The time periods can be as short as 3 years for minor offenses, or as long as 30 years for serious crimes.
There are also statutes that limit the amount of money that can be deposited in banks or that dictate how much a business must pay in taxes. These laws are enacted to protect citizens against financial crises, such as the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
Other types of law include immigration and nationality law, which concern the rights of people to reside in a country they do not own and to acquire or lose citizenship. These laws are often governed by international treaties, and are also a major part of the field of international law.
Commercial law, which covers complicated contracts and deals with property, is another important area of law. It grew out of a concept in the 18th century known as the Law Merchant, which encouraged commerce to be conducted in a way that protected private property rights and limited state power.
It is a complex subject that encompasses many other topics as well, ranging from labour law to family and children’s rights, intellectual property and taxation.
Those who study law are typically interested in the interaction between law and other areas of life. For example, those who study labor law are interested in the tripartite industrial relationship between workers, employers and trade unions. Those who study family law are interested in the rights of spouses and children.